- May 22, 2018 -
VRLA batteries Construction
VRLA cells may be made of flat plates similar to a conventional flooded lead–acid battery, or may be made in a spiral roll form to make cylindrical cells.
VRLA batteries have a pressure relief valve which will activate when the battery starts building pressure of hydrogen gas, generally a result of being recharged. Valve activation allows some of the gas or electrolyte to escape, thus decreasing the overall capacity of the battery. Rectangular cells may have valves set to operate as low as 1 or 2 psi; round spiral cells, with metal external containers, can have valves set as high as 40 psi.
The cell covers typically have gas diffusers built into them that allow safe dispersal of any excess hydrogen that may be formed during overcharge. They are not permanently sealed, but are designated to be "maintenance free". They can be oriented in any manner, unlike normal lead–acid batteries, which must be kept upright to avoid acid spills and to keep the plates' orientation vertical. Cells may be operated with the plates horizontal (pancake style), which may improve cycle life.
At high overcharge currents, electrolysis of water occurs, expelling hydrogen and oxygen gas through the battery's valves. Care must be taken to prevent short circuits and rapid charging. Constant-voltage charging is the usual, most efficient and fastest charging method for VRLA batteries, although other methods can be used. VRLA batteries may be continually "float" charged at around 2.35 volts per cell at 25 °C. Some designs can be fast charged (1 hour) at high rates. Sustained charging at 2.7 V per cell will damage the cells. Constant-current overcharging at high rates (rates faster than restoring the rated capacity in three hours) will exceed the capacity of the cell to recombine hydrogen and oxygen.